An elevated steel, reinforced concrete, or plastic tank that uses inlet pipes to collect hillside or borehole water. System complete with pipes, a tap, screen, platform, and possibly a tower. Huge tower tanks are most popular in developed countries.
A commercial 10,000L tank: USD54-1600 (India and Australia, respectively). OM costs are minimal: cracks, corrosion control, cleaning and treatment. Other costs: boreholes, towers, or standpipes. If water sold: earn USD120/day in Kenya. Affordability depends on scale, tank material, extra costs.
Applies to community or municipal. Best to consider scale needed to figure out costs. Caretaker recommended for OM. Commercial tanks could be considered.
Source contaminations may include: corrosion from metal, incoming area pollutants, tank mildew build-up, and siltation. Plastic can leach chemicals (BPA) into the water anytime, causing endocrine problems. Untreated water (pathogenic) can cause diarrheal illness. Water availability contributes to CO2-absorbing agriculture.
Installation: in-outlet, overflow and washout and screened ventilations pipes. Maintenance: open/close valves every 2 months; manage chlorinator; drain/clean or de-silt tank annually; paint to prevent corrosion; repair leaks. Lifetime: plastic 25 years (or less, especially when exposed to UV), reinforced concrete tank 30 years, steel tanks 45 years, respectively.
Reduces fetching time for women. Water year round increases food security, climate change resilience and improves hygiene. Awareness campaign to community for support. Use discouraged by high fees, insufficient treatment or improper siting (too far from households). Disadvantage is the high temperature, when exposed to sunshine.
No relevant remarks for Elevated storage tanks.