This method group includes commercial (ready-made), household-level disinfection products that apply various purification technologies. Commonly applied to treat pathogenic (bacterial, viral) contaminations from surface or shallow groundwater. Widespread devices include NaDCC, AquaEst Plation Floats, Aquapak.
Often imported products. Cost depends mainly on local availability. Depending on unit price and operational replacement costs, per m3 cost may be in the range of USD 1-7. Often for short-term use resulting in regularly recurring purchase costs.
Large-scale introduction of more affordable products may offer a relatively safe household-level treatment method even for low-income households. Should be aided with awareness-raising and maintenance monitoring to ensure timely exchange or cleaning of filters (or whole product, where applicable).
Applicable especially for surface water sources where physical and biological contamination is not complemented by chemical purification needs (e.g. arsenic or fluoride pollution). Requires no alteration of the natural environment, and is often without treatment residuals. Spent filters require safe disposal.
May require more user attention than multi-treatment devices (stirring, straining). Options such as PUR may be more labor-intensive, but they offer more flexibility in water yield. Bag-type products (e.g. Aquapak) require very little involvement, but output is limited to container size.
A relatively easy-to-use and reliable household option. Recurring costs and limited yield may motivate low-income households to abandon continuous use. When also considering the related costs, it is most suitable as an emergency or ‘drinking only’ water supply option.
No relevant remarks for Commercial disinfection options.