This method group is applied for the purification of seawater or brackish water sources. Low-tech applications include distillation-type technologies, implying water heating and the collection of the condensed vapor. There is no known high-tech solution applicable for household use in developing regions. Affordable, but labor-intensive method for small-scale water production.


Affordable even to the rural poor, but the labor-intensive production of often <10L/h water limits their popularity and widespread use. Prior to installation, long term feasibility of alternative water supply options should be viewed.


Applicable at household- and shared household level. Small community installations are often inefficient. Local managing requirements are minimal including reparation of broken parts and periodic cleaning. Depending on configuration, extra safety measures may be required to avoid risk of burning.


Sea or brackish water may be considered a sustainable water source in coastal areas. Also appropriate in remote areas with no alternatives. Wood-fueled methods may further contribute to deforestation, if applied at large-scale. Residual, with mainly salts, needs safe disposal.


Simple and easy to construct. Distillers are grouped as solar, hybrid solar and wood-fueled stills. Specific methods include Ghanzi (wood-fueled) and the Mexiacan (solar) still. Periodical cleaning for scaling removal. Glassware supply may be problematic in remote areas.


Lack of ease and comfort in water production reduces level of use. Desalinated water might lack essential elements for human beings (like calcium, magnesium, fluoride) making the water less tasty/healthy than conventional freshwater sources. Possible health risks at water boiling.

Relevant remarks:

No relevant remarks for Desalination.