In this method, chlorine is added to water for the disinfection of pathogens. Available in solution (e.g. bleach, WATA, WaterGuard), powder (e.g. bleaching powder, PUR) or tablet form (e.g. NaDCC). On average, a 30-minute contact time is needed before water is potable. Also protects water against recontamination.
Low-cost technology. Unit price for chlorination methods is generally low. Sodium hypochlorite costs in the range of USD 0.3 (per m3 water), a mini-WATA kit for chlorine production may cost USD50. NaDCCtablets cost about USD3.5/m3 water.
Can easily be applied at household level. Central authorities might help to improve the local availability of chlorine products. Users need training on proper handling and dosing of the chlorine.
Environment related issues are estimated to be minimal. No residuals which need to be disposed or treated, only packing materials might be dumped into the environment. Environmental factors might influence raw water quality and affect chlorine dosing requirements.
Only for clear water. For turbid water, sedimentation or filtration might be required prior to chlorination. Required equipment is simple and reliable. Manufacturer’s instructions for specific product should be followed. Chlorine should be stored away from children. Cleaning containers before refilling is recommended.
Chlorine taste and odor in water may require user education on that it is harmless but that chlorine taste alone is no guarantee for safe water. Possible by-products from disinfection. Health risk for people working with chlorine.
No relevant remarks for Chlorination.