This method is similar to pasteurization, but it works at a higher temperature. Water is boiled for at least 1 minute with 1 minute extra for every extra 1000m elevation in mountainous areas. The most straightforward disinfection method applicable for the thermal removal of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths). More expensive, but more secure to provide safe drinking water.


Expensive water treatment option. Specific costs depend on fuel source. Collecting fuel might be very time-consuming. Considering other labour activities which could have been done instead of fuel collection, it becomes even more expensive. Pots mostly available in households already.


Method is best suitable for application at household level. Central implementation requirements are minimal, people can just starting with it themselves. According to the disadvantages (fuel requirements and time consumption), other treatment options might be advocated rather than boiling.


Depending on the fuel source, boiling of drinking water might pose a significant burden to the environment. High demand for firewood contributes to deforestation. The local availability of fuels highly influenced the feasibility of boiling water at any location.


Technical specifications for disinfection of water by boiling, differ from boiling water for 1 minute up to 10 minutes. Hot pots need careful handling, in order to avoid burn injuries. Pots and stoves need to be replaced occasionally.


Taste of water affected because air released from water, might make people less open for boiling. Might be improved by stirring or shaking water after cooling. Risk of burn injuries and respiratory infections. Possible discouraging campaign to preserve natural resources.

Relevant remarks:

No relevant remarks for Boiling.