In this method, water is filtered through a ceramic element (e.g. candle or pot). The porous structure of the filter is achieved by mixing sawdust or another combustible material into the clay prior to the burning process. Applied primarily for the removal of pathogens and turbidity. Suitable for water with low turbidity and often combined with a storage device.
Candle: 15-30 USD, lasting maximum 3 year but usually 0.5-1 year. Replacing element might cost less than USD 5-7. Pot: USD 12 -25, lasting maximum 5 years but usually 1-2 years. Operation costs are minimal, only labor for filling and cleaning.
Pot filters can be manufactured locally, but usually mass-production in factories. For ensuring production quality, it is important that manufacturing is executed by certified enterprise. Dissemination might be at large scale. Final water quality is difficult to check at the household level.
Ceramic filters are environmentally friendly products. Even after they are replaced, the material will not pose high pressure on environment.
Effectiveness depends on pore size and eventual silver impregnation. Deposited materials need to be scrubbed/removed regularly, to maintain flow rate. Filter can be cleaned in boiling water. Periodically replacement required. Flow rates: 0.1-1 L/h for candles, 1-3 for pot filters.
Users only need to pour water into filter. Filtration takes long, might be problem if much water is required. Configurations with siphon might be more acceptable (filtration rate 4-6 L/h). Users might wait too long with replacement, increasing health risk.
No relevant remarks for Ceramic filter.