The most accessible but only seemingly cheapest transport method. When water is fetched from a river or well, the time and effort spent negatively influences household income. Fetching water in conflict areas may pose a daily threat for the carrier (traditionally a woman or child). Commonly used containers include a bucket, can or special designs (e.g. Q-drum or Hippo roller).
Costs are low and only include costs for bucket or container. Manual transport might also collect water from a water vendor or kiosk. Potential additional cost to household if fetching time is considerable. Advanced rolling container models may cost >USD50.
Manual transport is arranged by the users themselves, no external support required. Applicable at any location where people live within walking distance of a water source. Containers mostly easily available. Introducing advanced rolling containers requires a more central project.
Water might be taken from unimproved water sources. But also after fetching, the water in the container might become contaminated. The only waste might be the leaky buckets which are disposed in the environment.
Low-tech option. Containers carried on the head are typically 16-20L. Rolling containers might have larger volumes, up to 90L. Main O&M activity is cleaning the containers, which has to be done regularly. Repairing not easy, once leaking replacement is required.
Goes often together with long walking distances and long fetching time. Work mainly done by women and children. These problems might make people less willing to use it. If water is taken from unimproved water sources, there is health risk.
No relevant remarks for Manual transport.