A centralized transport method where water is transported through pipes from a source or treatment facility to a public standpipe, house, yard or group connection. Pumps are required to get pressure on water flowing through pipes. Pipes are typically made from metal, cement or plastic. Storage might help to buffer for peak demand or intermittent supply.
Both construction costs and O&M are high. Construction costs include design, material and labor. Energy requirement produces the highest running costs. Other O&M costs include repairs, pump control, leakage control and preventing recontamination.
Can supply water to community or larger user group. Implementation requires experts for system design and construction. For O&M activities skilled people required. Needs government regulation. Management responsibility might be at local authority, company or community committee, depending on system.
Pipes need to be dug in soil, has impact on local environment. In case of leaking pipes, contamination from soil might enter pipes. Leakage control and residual chlorine required. Compared to other distribution methods, this method has largest ecological footprint. Except for trucked water and bottled water!
High-tech method. Construction requires experts. Intermittent storage or pumping required to deal with variable demand. Water meters and house connections required. Maintenance includes leakage control, pipe cleaning, pump control (dealing with variable demand) and lubrication of pumps.
Expected to be highly appreciated by users since there is no manual pumping required and water gets closer to them. Only problem for users might be costs. If system not properly maintained, additional water treatment is required at household level.
No relevant remarks for Pressurized distribution.