Aeration ensures efficient water-air contact for the removal of dissolved gases and the oxidization of metals and ammonium. The process can be done by dispersing water through air in thin sheets or fine droplets (waterfall aerators) or mixing water with dispersed air (bubble aerators).


Low cost technology.


Best applied at small community-level or in centralized installations. Limited management and maintenance requirements. Since aeration is used in combination with other processes, the persons for these processes can also do maintenance for aeration.


Mainly used for groundwater to remove gases (CO2, CH4, H2S) and metal/ammonium ions. In open installations, contaminations may enter during treatment. These and other contaminations (e.g. oxidation products) have to be removed in subsequent treatment stage(s).


Simple technology. Waterfall aerators can be series of perforated trays, nozzled spray aerators or cascades. Need enough head (1-4m), but no power. Bubble aerators need less space. Maintenance depends on the aerator type, but it is generally limited.


Aeration is likely to be part of larger treatment installation without specific concern from users. Therefore, no special awareness-raising required. Although household-level cascade designs (mainly of bamboo) exist for South-East Asia , their relevance is limited.

Relevant remarks:

No relevant remarks for Aeration.